Here, we summarize current knowledge on the prevalence, distribution, and disease burden of the NTDs in India and South Asia, focusing on aspects particular to the region. The review of the literature was conducted using the online database PubMed from 2003 to 2010 with the Medical Subject Headings, the specific diseases listed in the World Health Organization’s (WHO) first report on NTDs, and the geographic regions and countries of South Asia. Reference lists of identified articles and reviews were also hand searched as were WHO databases (http://www.who.int/), including the WHO’s Weekly Epidemiological Record. Recently, a comprehensive review on the continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India was published . However, this review focuses exclusively on NTDs, many of which, especially the helminthiases, were not emphasized previously.